For the Buddha, the peace begins within the individual, not without. One has to go deep in his mind to purify one’s mind to attain peace. Change within individual leads to the change in the society. Thus the society transforms into to a noble society. These teachings have also become the guidelines for the followers of the Buddha. Aśtāngika Mārga The noble eightfold path, Buddha goes round and round like a great wheel that never stops, leading to the central point of the wheel, the only point which is fixed, Nirvana. The eight spokes on the wheel represent the eight parts of the Noble Eightfold Path which are as follows: 1) Right View 2) Right Thought 3) Right Speech 4) Right Conduct 5) Right Livelihood 6) Right Effort 7) Right Mindfulness 8) Right Concentration. These teachings are a practical counseling for personality development, mental health, emotional management and self understanding and significant of modern psychology. All types of ill wills, stress, anxiety, defilements, suffering, frustration, depression have the one solution that is noble path of Buddha’s teachings. The eightfold path will definitely lead to world peace if understood, adopted and internalized properly.
Key: Astāngika Mārga, Modern Psychology, World Peace:
- UGC Post Doctoral Fellow Dept.of studies and research in Psychology Gulbarga University Klaburagi, Karnataka State India.Pin: 585106 firstname.lastname@example.org cell number.+919742918816.
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“The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend personal God and avoid dogma and theology. Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things natural and spiritual as a meaningful unity. Buddhism answers t his description… If there is any religion that could cope with modern scientific needs, it would be Buddhism”. (Albert Einstein)
Origin meaning Pali ariya atthangiko maggo (Eight fold paths ) Buddha Teachings discipline namely (1) Ethical conduct (Sila) (2) Mental discipline (Samadhi) (3) and Wisdom (Panna), i.e., eight fold noble paths. He explained it in simple way” Subba- Papaassa Akaranam, Kusalassa Upasampada Sachitha Pariyodapanam, etanu Buddhanu Shasanam” (abstain from all unwholesome some deeds, perform is the teachings of enlightened person).
2. Review literature:
is an integral part of research process. It is necessary to locate, go through and evaluate the related literature that are relevant to the study being undertaken. A proper review of related literature provides the researcher with a thorough understanding of previous work done in the selected research area. Marques, Joan (2017) “Noble Eightfold Path,”— a core Buddhist philosophy. Applied to a secular world, Marques further identifies, explains, and applies the eight elements of the Path as a model for modern-day leadership. Isa Gucciardi, Ph.D. The Eightfold Path as an Ethical Compass it is important that counseling and healing practitioners have an approach to ethics that is more profound than a set of rules. Piyadassi (1979) Pointed out that the Noble Eightfold Path covered the whole Buddhist way of life, and thus, it is a means of self- development, which enables one to achieve wisdom and happiness.
Many researches are going on the teachings of Buddha especially Panchsheela and Astāngika Mārga in relation to psychology. There is wide gap in understanding psychological phenomenon in the western and eastern context of Buddha’s teachings. In the present study, effort has been made to know the impact of Astāngika Mārga on Personality and Mental health and some other demographic variables. Man being social animal has developed very good social relation in the society. Due to social relation many developments are taking place. The development of science and technology has brought tremendous changes in the society, and people are living in stressful life. To avoid it they need to understanding meaning of life, which requires perfect personality and good mental health. Man need minimum morality and ethics to maintain good health failing while will have adverse effects on personality and mental health.
Rational of the study:
Mankind is seeking to return to tranquility, peace, kindness, consideration stress free world. The teachings of Buddha may help to create meaning in life and good civics sense in the society. The practices of Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga will help to remove misery and establishes the universal humanity and peace in the world.There is no hide and secrete and no imagination it is near and real to the humanity. There is no discrimination, it has shown path of love, kindness compassion. Astāngika Mārga (Eight fold path) are right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livihood right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration which helps to develop insight in the individual.
Teachings of Buddha are emerging as a phenomenon for need for peaceful world. The whole world accepting teachings of Buddha not only religious thought, but also perceiving the way of life. Buddha’s whole teachings concentrates on human and living beings well-being, kindness compensation happiness etc. Astāngika Mārga are the basic teachings of Buddha, The eight fold path aim at promoting and perfecting the three essential of trainings and 1.Discipline ethical conduct (Sila) 2.Mental discipline (Samadhi) and 3. Wisdom (Panna) it will be more helpful for coherent and better understanding.
3.2 Statement of the Research Problem:
The present research aims to study the impact of teachings of Buddha Astāngika Mārga on Personality and Mental health of Buddhist and Non Buddhist. It also tries to know that practices of Astāngika Mārga differ in its experience, practices, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. Therefore, the problem of statement is teachings of Buddha the impact of Astāngika Mārga on Personality and Mental health were taken.
To find out significant impact of Astāngika Mārga on Personality and Mental Health of Buddhist and Non Buddhist. To know the significant difference in practice of Astāngika Mārga between Buddhist and Non Buddhist.
H1.There would be a significant impact of practice of Astāngika Mārga on Personality and Mental health of Buddhist and non- Buddhist. H2.There would be a significant difference in practice of Astāngika Mārga between Buddhists and non- Buddhist.
The following major variables have been used as independent and dependent variables.
A} Independent Variable:
Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga
Gender, Education, Occupation and Marital Status
B} Dependent Variable:
Personality and Mental Health (World Peace)
1. Self Prepared and standardized Questionnaire were used for Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga ( PSAM 2013). The test reliability is 0.87. The convergent validity established through correlates PSAM 64 items of Buddha’s teachings on Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga with positive correlation i.e., r= 0.5 p .
Rational of the Study:
The rational that Right understanding is real wisdom which means to understanding things as they really are and not as they appear to be right understating is the application of insight to the five aggregates of clinging and understanding their true nature. That understands oneself. It is self examination and self –observation. It ensures that right thought’s help and it co-ordinations ideas. Thinking about true is not enough, we must realize truth ourselves apparent truth is a reality but that one penetrate in order to experience the ultimate reality of us and eliminate suffering. Truth can be lived, can be experienced directly, only within oneself, whatever is outside is always at a distance from us. Only within can we have actual direct living experience of reality. This way of understanding difference from one to other religious teachings. Therefore the formulated hypothesis that there are significant difference in right understanding between Buddhist and Non Buddhist The rational that right thought is the result of seeing thing as they are. Thoughts were all important; for a man’s words and acts have thoughts as their sources. It is truthful are translated into speech and deed. The good or ill results of our words and actions depend solely on our thoughts; on the way we think.Henace the importance of learning to think straight instead of crooked. The beauty on the ugliness of our words and deeds depend on our own thoughts. Which are real. Thoughts travel stiff than anything we can conceive of and they roam whither-so-even they list. Their influence on us and the external world is tremendous. Each and every ugly, vicious and morally respective thoughts polities the human heart and may cause untold harm. Wrong words and deeds are expressions of a wrong harm. Wrong words and deeds are expressions of a wrong conation of mind. But if man concentrates on right thought with right understanding the good results that – mind can produce are immense. It is thoughts of renunciation of good-will and not harming or compassion. The rational that all religions and philosophic advocate moral or ethics of some kind or often for man’s own well-being and for the good of the society in which he lives. These ethical codes are not of the same level or categories. But they vary. What is moral to some may not be so to others; what one condemns as immoral may be required as moral by another. Principle of right and wrong behavior depend, al-times, on the background of the different people of the world their geographical, economic and social conditions, and so on. Thus the criteria of the principles of morality differ.
This indicates that the Teachings of Buddha; is useful today to understand himself/ herself to think over the issues, to take appropriate action in a right way, helps us to right speak way, which leads to right livelihood facilitates for taking right effort. Right effort always keeps right mindfulness and right mindfulness will have right concentration. Therefore there is significant difference between Buddhist and Non Buddhist in practicing Astāngika Mārga. Therefore the formulated hypothesis that there are significant difference in practicing Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga and strong impact on personality and mental health of Buddhist and Non Buddhist.
The Astāngika Mārga has a positive impact on Personality and Mental health. The r values significantly correlation with Personality. The Astāngika Mārga dimension like right to understating, right to thought, right to speech, right to action, right to livelihood, right to effort, right to mindfulness and right to concentration are the significant correlation with personality. There is correlation of Buddhist and Non Buddhist with Astāngika Mārga with Personality. And also there is positive correlation with Mental Health with Astāngika Mārga of Buddhist and Non Buddhist. Therefore the formulated hypothesis is accepted.
4. Summary and Conclusion:
The obtained results and discussed facts have led to the following conclusions:
There are significant differences between Buddhist and non-Buddhist in practices of Astāngika Mārga the Buddhist are strong enough in right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration than the non-Buddhist. Therefore the formulated hypothesis is accepted.
Inclusive in the study
The following variables are included in the present research study. There are gender, education, occupation and marital status of samples of Hyderabad Karnataka Region Buddhist and non Buddhist.
Exclusive in the study
The following variables like age, caste, income, religion, aria and practice of meditation etc of other than Hyderabad Karnataka Region.
Limitation of research study
- Samples were collected within Hyderabad Karnataka Region.
- Teachings of Buddha are very vast study and present study limited to Astāngika Mārga.
Suggestion of the further research
This study helps to explore deep roots of human cause and effect to give innovative mechanics and tools for peaceful life of human being.
- There is a need to practice of Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga to understand present problems like caste, discrimination, sexual harassment and intoxication, social evils etc, which will help of common man.
- Attempt can be made to know the impact of Panchseela and Astāngika Mārga on meditation, yoga etc.
- A comparative study can be made on Theravada with other sects of Buddhism.
- Teachings of Buddha’s Panchsheela and Astāngika Mārga can be used as life skills for personality through counseling in schools, colleges and universities etc.
- Teachings of Buddha’s may be used as counselling method for under trial criminals, jueninale delinquents, prisoners, and anti social elements etc.